In our studies, show indicated that quantity of waterpipes used per week try significantly of the higher nomophobia

Waterpipe smoking is a well liked passion during the Lebanese society, 29 and you will Lebanon provides the highest puffing pricing on the Arab area 52 having an estimated 53% of inhabitants aged > 19 many years are most recent smokers 52 and you may 30% being waterpipe smokers. 53 Waterpipes, known as hookah, argileh, shisha, goza, hubble-bubble, and you can narghile, come in sizes and you may distinctions but primarily integrate a beneficial tubing, heavens valve, line with an effective mouthpiece, saucer, and you will a pan where in actuality the delicacies, mainly tobacco cigarette, is actually burned. 54 This new smoking utilized is named “hookah cigarette” otherwise “mouassal,” and therefore translates out-of Arabic so you can “honeyed” and has to 29% cigarette and you can 70% honey/sugarcane and glycerol or other types. 55 It can be smoked because of the a single individual however, always are enacted as much as in this a circle simply because of its potency and you can therefore can be regarded as a bonding hobby among groups and you will is looked upon more highly than smoke.

Inside data, ladies whom continuously used playing with waterpipes was basically significantly more gonna meet the medical diagnosis off nomophobia however, showed zero tall experience of tobacco cigarette, reflecting differences when considering brand of relaxation substance play with. The reasons for this difference will vary but can feel because the waterpipe smoking was a dormant craft long-term anywhere from 20 to ninety times, providing anyone time to utilize its devices for entertainment. 29 If you are tobacco stays perhaps one of the most addictive ingredients, 56 just waterpipe smoking resulted in nomophobia, and it also stays unsure when the other compounds play a role in the addicting vibrant out of nomophobia.

Logical Ramifications

This study highlights personality traits and you will behaviors just like the predictors to have nomophobia as well as sociodemographic circumstances. Since the nomophobia happens to be much more commonplace from the educational business, it is very important accept associated factors to establish entertaining and you may precautionary steps one target one another character traits one to increase (neuroticism and you can disinhibition) otherwise fall off (agreeableness and you will detachment) the odds out of nomophobia, and addictive habits (waterpipe smoking). Additionally, new Identification Index to possess DSM-5 was reputable, quick, and you will prompt to administer and features important trait domains value further investigation for the people who have nomophobia.


Nomophobia levels was indeed evaluated following a questionnaire and not by way of a clinical interviews; as a result of this, the solutions may possibly are particular inaccuracies due to respondents perhaps not trying to let you know weaknesses or because of bear in mind and you can guidance bias. Additionally, the new NMP-Q isn’t designed to result in the medical diagnosis away from nomophobia-this may simply aid in the brand new assessment procedure of the illness-and extra comparison of the an effective psychologist otherwise doctor is necessary to result in the unique analysis, and that as mentioned in past times is still are researched. As well, the new NMP-Q, as with any nomophobia forms, doesn’t have a great cutoff area and you will what exactly is felt major within this studies are seen as moderate in another. Yet not, we feel confident that major nomophobia once the defined within studies contributes to impairment, whilst strongly influences both organizational and you can public lifetime of the person. Also, choices bias has been present from the refusal rate. Recommendations prejudice is obviously within observational studies since players are most likely so you’re able to overestimate otherwise undervalue its attacks. A recurring confounding prejudice is additionally you are able to since there are facts which could was in fact from the nomophobia but were not pulled into account.


To conclude, this research displayed the latest relationship anywhere between some personality traits and you will nomophobia one of a sample of Lebanese grownups. As the digital have fun with becomes more common within personal and you will top-notch lifetime, nomophobia you will be a threat basis to possess nervousness, and you may susceptible individuals should become aware of their ilove desktop threats. Future studies would be to run preventive and you may treatment measures on type of awareness strategies. One of the numerous outlines from lookup you will definitely mention the sorts of points anyone manage along with their digital gadgets and their reference to nomophobia.

While research towards the community and its own affect nomophobia do exists, 6 also theoretic models particularly mindfulness, 7,8 research with the personality traits as well as their relationship with nomophobia was not having. Even though the dating anywhere between characteristics and you may nomophobia could have been browsed in the previous studies, nine,10 very important trait domains such as for instance bad connect with, withdrawal, disinhibition, antagonism, and you will psychoticism have not been examined.

The objective of this study was to choose an average products in the nomophobia inside the a massive attempt away from Lebanese adults, especially considering the experience of character traits or any other sociodemographic issues that subscribe the new medical diagnosis such as for instance gender, adult condition, and puffing (cigarettes and you may waterpipe).